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ItemComprehension of Human Existence by Philosophical Anthropology in the Theoretical Space of Modern Historical-Anthropological Concepts(Ukrainian State University of Science and Technologies, Dnipro, 2022) Aitov, Spartak S.ENG: Purpose. The paper seeks to prove the thesis of the significance and importance of the theories and methodolog-ical approaches of historical anthropology, which are aimed at understanding the meanings, essence and value sys-tems of human existence in the past for philosophical anthropology. The study of this problem is relevant for under-standing the evolution of human identity with philosophical and anthropological concepts, understanding the es-sence of one’s own existence and attitude to the world. Theoretical basis. The author conducts research in the anal-ysis of the reflexive field of philosophical anthropology and related disciplines, in particular historical anthropology, implemented in the philosophical literature of recent centuries, that is, in the space of non-classical and modern philosophical thought. Originality. I raise and substantiate the theoretical question of the scientific significance of the analysis of human existence in the past thanks to the involvement of theoretical approaches and concepts formed in the reflexive field of modern historical and anthropological research. This forms the prerequisites for understand-ing complex and interdisciplinary explorations of the essence and cultural and spiritual values of human existence. I analyse the problems of the work in the context of the concept of the incompleteness of the project of philosophical anthropology without its involvement in the theoretical achievements of historical-anthropological investigations. Conclusions. In my opinion, modern historical and anthropological studies of the essence and meanings of being a person of the past form an extensive theoretical system. It is realized through such theoretical aspects of comprehen-sion of human existence by historical and anthropological studies as "history of mentalities", "microhistory", "histo-ry of women", "new cultural history", "history of identity", "history of memory", history of mental aspects of politi-cal processes. Methodological approaches and concepts of modern historical anthropology form the basis of mental reconstruction and understanding of the mental and cultural causes and factors of human existence, thanks to the analysis of the evolution of the worldview, behaviour, outlook, various forms of individual and social activity of the individual. ItemDescartes on Open Knowledge and Human Perfection(Ukrainian State University of Science and Technologies, Dnipro, 2022) Kolesnykova, Tetiana O.; Malivskyi, Anatolii M.ENG: Purpose. The purpose is to justify the validity of interpreting Descartes’ teachings as an enquiry into the search for forms and means of improving human nature, which implies a focus on the way he understands the openness of knowledge and education. The problem is considered from the perspective of representatives of university commu-nities (teachers and librarians), historically included in the communication structure and system of the institution, including through the creation, management, use, preservation and dissemination of knowledge. Theoretical basis. One of the tenets of Descartes’ teachings is his desire to improve the human being. For our consideration, it is fun-damentally important that Descartes uses "knowledge" not only in a narrow sense – as natural scientific knowledge, but also in a broader sense. In the context of the theme of the study, the most important case is when the thinker re-calls the knowledge that every person experiences without referring to philosophy. It is this knowledge that, for Descartes, is key in resolving the central problem of his ethics – how can human nature be perfected? For our con-sideration of Descartes’ key points, it is fair to focus on the manifestation of the phenomenon of altruism in Des-cartes’ philosophy and on the representative fact of his inner openness – his willingness to engage in dialogue. He appreciates and encourages his interlocutors to turn to books, which are a form of representation of the vivid person-alities of their authors. Originality. For the first time in the research literature, the thesis of René Descartes as one of the forerunners of the open knowledge system is substantiated. The arguments are given for the validity of Des-cartes’ interpretation of the demand of his own epoch for the search of effective forms of human improvement. Conclusions. The idea of justification of Descartes’ philosophical legacy as a predictor of open knowledge became possible under the condition of paying attention to the anthropological turn he made and finding substantive ana-logues of openness, including open education. Drawing on Christianity as the basis for altruism, Descartes demon-strates a caring attitude towards the achievements of previous generations on the path of personal self-development. His attention is rightly drawn to education and books as representations of vibrant personalities. Their authentic and productive assimilation is possible only under the condition of a caring attitude towards the public good, which in-volves the intellectual volunteering of teachers and librarians. It is about self-realization through altruistic self-improvement, i.e. intellectual charity, which is especially evident today during martial law in Ukraine and is volun-tary, conscious and free work for the benefit of others. ItemPre-Critical Kant on the Anthropological Basis of the Enlightenment Project(Ukrainian State University of Science and Technologies, Dnipro, 2022) Malivskyi, Anatolii M.; Yakymchuk, О. І.ENG: Purpose. The authors aim to reveal the peculiarity of comprehension of the human phenomenon in the process of referring to the text of "Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime" by the early Immanuel Kant, which is based on the critical rethinking of the Enlightenment position. A prerequisite for its substantial solution is addressing the problem of the place of the "Observations" in the evolution of Kant’s anthropological views. Theoretical basis. Our view of Kant’s legacy is based upon the conceptual positions of phenomenology, existentialism and hermeneutics. Originality. We have proved that the anthropological interest was inherent in Kant already in the pre-critical stage of his work, as shown by the still underestimated treatise "Observation". The paper give arguments that this text highlights the main topics that will later be the subject of a detailed study of both Kant himself and philosophical anthropology of the 20th century. It is revealed that Kant overcomes the Enlightenment temptation to absolutize the power of human reason and emphasizes its limitations. The specified step is a necessary condition for him to comprehend the important role of the sensual-passionate component of human nature and to recognize the importance of the metaphysical nature of man. Conclusions. For us today, the pre-critical Kant appears as the developer of anthropological teaching, first presented in the treatise "Observations". Already at this stage, Kant demonstrates a holistic vision of human nature. In the process of creative evolution of the thinker, this treatise should be qualified as a kind of sketch of the future concentrated development of human nature, elaborated in the pages of "Anthropology" in 1798. The author gives a key place to the metaphysics of human nature, a vivid illustration of which is, in particular, the last paragraph of "Observations" dedicated to freedom. The conducted analysis provides sufficient grounds for qualifying this text as an outline of the anthropological basis of his doctrine of pure reason, the doctrine of metaphysics as the metaphysics of man, which, in turn, gives us the key to understanding "Anthropology" as his final text. ItemАнтропологічні виміри філософських досліджень № 22, 2022 р.(Український державний університет науки і технологій, Дніпро, 2022)UKR: У збірнику представлені наукові статті, що висвітлюють та осмислюють нові грані людського існування на початку нового тисячоліття. Окрема увага зосереджується на формах їх оприявнення та рефлексії у філософії науки, культури, техніки, мови. Збірник призначено для співробітників науково-дослідних організацій, наукових, науково-педагогічних та інженерних працівників, докторантів, аспірантів, студентів вищих навчальних закладів.