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# Кафедра "Безпека життедіяльності"<br>(з 2022 увійшла до складу кафедри Екологічна та цивільна безпека ДІІТ)

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Кафедра "Безпека життедіяльності"

(з 2022 увійшла до складу кафедри Екологічна та цивільна безпека ДІІТ)

EN: Department "Life Safety"

(з 2022 увійшла до складу кафедри Екологічна та цивільна безпека ДІІТ)

EN: Department "Life Safety"

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### Browsing Кафедра "Безпека життедіяльності"<br>(з 2022 увійшла до складу кафедри Екологічна та цивільна безпека ДІІТ) by Title

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Item Calculation of «Vulnerability» Zone in Case of Terrorist Attack with Chemical Agents(Дніпропетровський національний університет залізничного транспорту ім. акад. В. Лазаряна, Дніпро, 2018) Biliaiev, Mykola M.; Berlov, Oleksandr V.; Kalashnikov, Ivan V.; Kozachyna, Vitalii A.Show more EN: Purpose. The work involves the development of a numerical model for calculating the «vulnerability» zone of a possible terrorist attack objective with the use of a chemical agent in a builtup environment. The «vulnerability» zone is a territory near the attack objective, where the emission of a chemical agent during the attack will lead to undesirable consequences. The emission of a chemical agent outside the «vulnerability» zone will not create a dangerous concentration near the attack objective. Methodology. To solve this problem, we use the equation for the velocity potential, on the basis of which we determine the wind stream velocity field, and the equation adjoint to the equation of mass transfer in the atmospheric air of the chemical agent emitted in the event of a terrorist attack. During simulation, we take into account the uneven wind stream velocity field, atmospheric diffusion and the rate of emission of a chemically hazardous substance. For the numerical integration of the velocity potential equation, we use the method of A. A. Samarsky. For numerical solution of the adjoint equation, we introduce new variables and use an implicit difference splitting scheme. The peculiarity of the developed numerical model is the possibility of operative estimation of the «vulnerability» zone near a possible attack objective. Findings. The developed numerical model and computer program can be used for scientifically grounded assessment of the «vulnerability» zone near significant facilities in the event of possible attacks with the use of chemical (biological) agents. The constructed numerical model can be implemented on computers of small and medium power, which allows it to be widely used to solve the problems of this class when developing the emergency response plan. The results of the computational experiment are presented, which allow us to evaluate the possibilities of the proposed numerical model. Originality. An effective numerical model is proposed for calculating the «vulnerability» zone near the facility, which may be the target of a terrorist attack with the use of a chemical agent. The model is based on the numerical integration of the velocity potential equation and the equation adjoint to the equation of mass transfer of a chemically dangerous substance in the atmosphere. Practical value. The developed model can be used to organize protective actions near the target facility of a possible chemical attack by terrorists.Show more Item Comparative Tests of Contact Elements at Current Collectors in Order to Comprehensively Assess their Operational Performance(PC "Technology Center", Ukrainian State University of Railway Transport, Kharkov, Ukraine, 2018) Babyak, Mykola O.; Horobets, Volodymyr L.; Sychenko, Viktor G.; Gorobets, YevhenShow more EN: We have studied the interaction between contact elements in the pantographs of electric transport under operation at the sections of railroads powered by direct and alternating current. In contrast to known techniques for bench tests, we investigated the mechanism of current collection and wear resistance at the new testing installation over a minimally narrow region of the sliding contact, simulating the phenomenon of a pantograph “cut”. This installation can be used both industrially when manufacturing new contact elements and under laboratory setting when studying wear resistance. The experimental research confirmed that the wear intensity of contact elements at pantographs depends on current load over a contact area, the magnitude of contact pressure, the area of a contact surface, and motion speed. We have practically proven a possibility to maintain a reliable contact connection in the sliding contact under extreme operating conditions when using a reliable contact material for the current collector pads. It has been proposed to use the powder composition BrIG based on bronze, iron, and graphite, for making contact elements for pantographs that could provide for reliable contact when interacting with the contact wire. Application of new and high-quality contact materials affects the tribology and stability of interaction between plates and the contact wire. Owing to our study, a possibility has been established to manufacture a reliable contact element BrIG, which would prolong the time of interaction in the contact pair “pantograph at electric transport ‒ contact network”. The practical significance of this research relates to the proven efficiency of utilizing the new contact material BrIG for electric railroad transport network, in trolley buses and trams. Thus, one can argue about the possibility to prolong the time of operation for the contact pair “pad in a pantograph at electric transport ‒ contact network” by applying the new contact material BrIG.Show more Item Determining the Rational Motion Intensity of Train Traffic Flows on the Railway Corridors with Account for Balance of Expenses on Traction Resources and Cargo Owners(Sciendo, 2019) Butko, Tetiana V.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Prokhorchenko, Andrii V.; Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Prokhorchenko, HalynaShow more ENG: The article proposes a method for determining the rational motion intensity of specific train traffic flows on railway transport corridors with account for balance of expenses on traction resources and cargo owners. A mathematical model based on stochastic optimization is developed, which allows to optimize, in the conditions of risks, the interval between trailing trains on the railway lines taking into account the limited resources of the traction rolling stock, the capacity of the stations and freight fronts at the cargo destination point. Solving this mathematical model allows to find a balance between the expenses for movement of train traffic flows from different railway lines to their terminal reference station and the expenses of a consignee, subject to the limitations of the technological logistics chain in cargo transportation. For the solution of this mathematical model, a Real-coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA) was used.Show more Item Electrical Activity Dynamics of the Hippocampus under Caffeine Influence(ДДІФКіС, 2015) Турицька, Тетяна Григорівна; Сидоренко, Ганна ГригорівнаShow more EN: The results may indicate that the effect of coffeine substances on neurophysiological parameters of electrical activity of the hippocampus of rates reflects one of the many lines of action of some from of nutritional stress, which mechanisms relate to the work and limiting and activating systems of the brain over time.Show more Item The Features of Summary Phonomic Electric Activity of Hypothalamus of Rums Under Conditions of Chronic Caffeine Alimentation(Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Ukraine, 2018) Turitskaya, Tatyana G.; Lukashev, S. N.; Lyashenko, Valentina P.; Sidorenko, Hanna G.Show more EN: One of the factors of the environment, which essentially shifts homeostasis, can include food with the composition of caffeine. The aim of the study was to find out the basic characteristics of background electrical activity of trophotrophic and ergotrophic zones of the hypothalamus in conditions of chronic caffeine alimentation. Experiments were carried out on non-linear white male rats. The first group consisted of control animals (n = 22). The second group (n = 24) was represented by the animals that were given a pure caffeine in an amount of 150 mg/kg/day with their meal. The registration of electrogipotalamogram was carried out in conditions of acute experiment, every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. The spectral (mkV2) and the normalized power (%) of electrogipotalamogram waves were analyzed within the common frequency band. The analysis of the results allowed to establish a certain specificity of the reaction of the neuronal system of the trophotrophic and ergotrophic zones of the rat hypothalamus to the effect of chronic caffeine alimentation. The main difference in the reactive state of electrophysiological indices in the trophotrophic zone of rats is the lack of a typical desynchronization from the 4th to the 8th week of the study and the hypersynchronization after 12 weeks of the experiment. The most probable mechanism that explains the results obtained is the ultra-powerful GABA-ergic modulation of this zone, the main energy-accumulating center. Perhaps, this powerful inhibitory resource in this cerebral locus is the main stress-limiting factor that makes this zone of the central nervous system of rats less sensitive to caffeine exposure. Instead, under the influence of chronic caffeine load in the ergotrophic zone of the hypothalamus, after 6 weeks of study dominated by desynchronous high-frequency rhythms. During the rest time of the study, we observed a decrease in both low-frequency and high-frequency components of the electrogipotalamogram of this zone. This forms an opinion, that the key component of the neurophysiological response of the posterior rat hypothalamus to the caffeine ration is the powerful glutamatergic effects on the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons under conditions of reactive exhaustion of local neurosynthetic. Caffeine depletion of the hypothalamic neurotransmission at the end of the experiment is replaced by an effective adaptive and adaptive ergotrophic restoration of neurosynthetic activity in this locus of the central nervous system of rats. Thus, caffeine has a powerful activating effect on the ergotrophic function of the posterior rat hypothalamus. Such a difference in the chronic effect of caffeine on the trophotrophic and ergotrophic zone of the rat hypothalamus is primarily due to the different mediator support of these zones underlying their physiological purpose. GABA is the main mediator of the trophotrophic zone and the main neurotransmitter of its synchronous activity. At the same time, neurotransmitter support of the ergotrophic zone is represented by glutamate, which, along with other agents, implements its desynchronous activity. Since caffeine stimulates excitation, activating the pathways traditionally associated with motivational and motor reactions in the brain, it can be assumed that this explains the fact of a more powerful influence of caffeine precisely on the ergotrophic zone of the hypothalamus.Show more Item Forecasting the Estimated Time of Arrival for a Cargo Dispatch Delivered by a Freight Train Along a Railway Section(НВП ПП «Технологічний Центр», Харьків, 2019) Prokhorchenko, Andrii V.; Panchenko, Artem; Parkhomenko, Larysa; Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Prokhorchenko, Halyna; Kolisnyk, AlinaShow more ENG: This paper reports a method for predicting the expected time of arrival (ETA) of a cargo dispatch taking into consideration determining the duration at which a freight train travels along a railroad section where trains move not complying with a departure schedule. A characteristic feature of railroads with such a traffic system is the difficulty in predicting the stages of a transportation process, which necessitates the development of effective methods of forecasting. Based on correlation analysis, we have determined the dependence of the general macro-characteristics of train flow and individual parameters of a freight train on the duration of its movement along a section. It has been proposed to represent the dependence of predicted duration of train movement along a railroad section on the following factors: traffic intensity and density along a section, the proportion of passenger trains in total train flows, the length of a train and its gross weight. All experimental studies are based on actual data on the operation of the distance Osnova-Lyubotyn at the railroad network AO Ukrzaliznytsya. Based on a comparative analysis, using the indicators for accuracy and adequacy of several regression methods to predict ETA of cargo dispatch, we have chosen the regression model based on an artificial neural network MLP. To derive the MLP structure, a cross-validation method has been applied, which implies the validation of a mathematical model reliability based on the criteria of accuracy MAE and adequacy ‒ F-test. The structure of MLP has been obtained, which consists of five hidden layers. We predicted the time that it would take for a train to travel in facing direction along the Osnova-Lyubotyn section. For a given projection, the value for MAE was 0.0845, which is a rather high accuracy for this type of problems, and confirms the effectiveness of MLP application to solve the task on predicting a cargo dispatch ETA. The current study provides a possibility to design in the future an automated system for predicting a cargo dispatch ETA for a mixed-traffic railroad system in which freight trains depart not complying with a regulatory schedule.Show more Item Formulation of the Mathematical Model for the Planning System in the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail(IOP Publishing, 2020) Bibik, Svitlana I.; Strelko, Oleh; Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Kuzmenko, AlbinaShow more ENG: The paper aims to the topical issue of improving the system in the planning of carriage of dangerous goods by rail subject to ensuring a high level of safety of the transport process and minimal costs for its implementation. Formalization of this process leads to the formation of an optimization task of the two-stage mathematical model. To implement the first stage, a mathematical model in searching the best route based on risk minimization is developed. In order to exclude the unacceptably complex and expensive options for the carriage of dangerous goods from the many possible routes, the authors abided by the condition not to exceed the critical operating costs. The second stage in the process of planning routes for dangerous goods takes into account the hazard identification study in the technological process of car movement with dangerous goods. Considering that the probability of a potential traffic accident is a complex random variable, which is due to a set of elementary previously unknown events, its estimation was made on the basis of the Bayesian approach. Based on the simulation results, the following reliability values are determined at which a transport accident should not emerge.Show more Item An Improved Method of Determining the Schemes of Locomotive Circulation with Regard to the Technological Peculiarities of Railcar Traffic(НВП ПП «Технологічний Центр», Харків, 2016) Butko, Tetiana V.; Prokhorchenko, Andrii V.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.Show more UKR: Запропоновано удосконалення методів визначення схем обігу локомотивів з урахуванням технологічних особливостей вагонопотоків. Розроблено математичну модель, яка дозволяє знайти масу поїздів на маршрутах їх слідування, схеми обігу локомотивів та роботи бригад з врахуванням дислокації парку з різними серіями на полігоні мережі. Для рішення даної математичної моделі застосовано цілочисельний генетичний алгоритм з власною схемою кодування рішення.Show more Item Improvement of Supervisory Control of Train Movement by Means of Introduction of Operational Zones(Дніпропетровський національний університет залізничного транспорту імені академіка В. Лазаряна, Дніпро, 2018) Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Bekh, Petro V.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Avramenko, Svetlana I.Show more ENG: Purpose. The work is aimed to investigate the feasibility of transferring automatic control to low-density stations of the sections (according to the principle of supervisory control of train line) to the operators at principal stations. Methodology. The article analyzes the work of heavy traffic sections of the Ukrainian Railways JSC. It was found out that the information workload of dispatchers who control the train movement at the sections of the main course, constantly exceeds the permissible level. The possibility of using the technology of supervisory control of train movement by the introduction of operational zones has been investigated. Findings. The authors found out that the capacity of receiving and departure tracks at the stations of the sections is extremely limited. The occupancy of passing loop by the out-of-work trains hinders any regulatory measures at the sections. Trains pass one after another without giving priority, that is, they pass through the section in the order in which they entered it. Due to the limited number of tracks at the front-line intermediate station, freight trains are set for passing by the passenger ones at the distant approaches. This leads to a loss of service speed and reduces the level of utilization of the sections` working capacity. The introduction of operational zones will significantly reduce information flows and facilitate the work of the train dispatchers at the, create the necessary conditions for creative decision-making on the internal section regulation, and will contribute to increase in the service speed of trains. Originality. The article developed a new technology to improve the management of train sections by dividing them into operational zones. In each zone, consisting of two or three passes, the train movement can be controlled by the duty officer of the principal station, performing in this case the functions of the train dispatcher. Practical value. It has been proposed to put trains from technical stations that idle due to uneven movement, especially the trains from the terminal stations (division points) of the locomotive circulation sections, to reserve routes of the front-line intermediate stations. Laying the reserve tracks and their content, taking into account the frequency of use and reduced allowable speed, can be allowed according to less tight standards for the construction of the roadbed, ballast section, sleeper density, taking into account the use of switches and decommissioned tracks.Show more Item Improvement of the Automated Control Technology of Trains Traffic with Dangerous Goods(IEEE, 2021) Bibik, Svitlana I.; Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Kuzmenko, AlbinaShow more ENG: This article is devoted to the actual issue of improving the automated control technology of trains traffic with dangerous goods due to the addition of the existing set of tasks. These tasks are solved on the basis of operating automatized working places of dispatching personnel, by the software for decision-making support system developed on the basis of the graph of the Bayesian Belief Network that describes the security status of trains traffic en route. The scientific value of the article lies in the development of new technology for planning and managing the transport of dangerous goods through intelligent support for decisions at the tactical and operational levels.Show more Item Matrix Method for Determining Structural Reliability of the System and Significance of Its Elements in Terms of Reliability(Scientific Research Publishing, 2015) Kravets, Viktor V.; Kravets, Vladimir V.; Burov, OlexiyShow more EN: Matrix method is being proposed for qualitative evaluation of the reliability of technical systems on a finite set of structural elements. We are introducing the criteria for qualitative assessment of the reliability in the form of structural reliability of the system as the probability of the troubleproof state of this system and the significancy of the individual elements in ensuring the structural reliability of the system as a general aggregate of conditional probabilities, which compose two (2×2) matrices of significancy for each element. We are using chain diagrams for solving the combinatronic problems and matrices for algorithmization of calculating procedures.Show more Item Methods and Results of Evaluating the Dual-Power Electric Train Crew Elements Service Life(IOP Publishing, 2020) Horobets, Volodymyr L.; Sablin, Oleh I.; Fedorov, Yevhen F.; Horobets, Yevhen; Bolotov, Oleksij O.; Jangulova, Olga L.Show more EN: The article assesses the long-term strength of the vibration damper assembly of a double power transmission of electric trains manufactured by «Hyundai-Rotem Company». The technique is described and the analysis of the service life of the elements of the chassis of the electric train is made. The presence and nature of micro cracks in the loaded elements of the vibration damper assembly was evaluated after a full cycle of vibration bench tests. The influence of vertical vibrations of the electric train body on the level of dynamic load and the service life of the bearing elements of the vibration damper assembly is considered. The service life of the vibration damper at the end of the service life has been estimated by comparing working hours and “statistical playback”. The calculation of the resource by the method of "statistical reproduction" confirms the possibility of operating the vibration damping module (second modernization) for 50 years from the date of construction. The influence of the vibration damper position on its dynamic loading is checked. The main stages and sequence of tests for estimation the resource of the longitudinal vibration damper module of a double-fed electric train are also considered, including methodological, calculated and experimental confirmation of the reliability and durability of the unit, which was studied as part of a comprehensive work.Show more Item Modelling of Wound Process Dynamics in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus In Addition to VAC-Therapy with a Discrete-Time Markov Chain(Scholars Academic and Scientific Publisher, India, 2015) Kravets, Viktor V.; Besedin, Alexander M.; Kravets, Vladimir V.Show more EN: The wound process in patients with diabetes mellitus in addition to VAC-therapy (Vacuum-assisted closure — VAC® therapy) is examined. The model of the biological system describing the wound process is built on three independently functioning subsystems; it is assumed to be ergodic and presented with a symmetric graph. The mathematical model of the wound process dynamics is constructed based on a discrete-time Markov chain and constitutes an eighth-order iterative matrix equation. A period of 24 hours is taken as the discrete time during which the probabilistic characteristics of the subsystems are assumed to be averaged. The phase course of the wound process in patients with diabetes mellitus in addition to VAC-therapy is viewed as a Markovian process of the biological system random walk among eight possible states depending on the preassigned baseline state and transition probabilities. It is tested for stability. The calculation algorithms modelling multidimensional Markovian processes are adapted to computer technology.Show more Item Non-Destructive Control Data Analysis of Railroad Foundation Constructions(Dnipro National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan, 2019) Trofimov, Alexander; Kuzmenko, Albina I.; Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Avramenko, Svitlana I.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Mormul, Nikolaj; Sokhatsky, AnatoliyShow more ENG: Abstract. The evaluation of the parameters of multi-layered foundations (railroad basis, foundations of railway structures, etc.) plays an important role in ensuring the safe movement of trains. The method of estimating the mechanical and geometric parameters of such foundations based on the solutions of inverse problems for multi-layered elastic packets is proposed. As input data for such problems the measured displacements of certain points on the package surface are used. The method allows estimating the parameters of the a priori distribution of unknown variable parameters, identifying and excluding outliers of the measured data from the created model, and constructing a posteriori estimation of the unknown parameters probability density with acceptable resolution. Proposed method can be used to create a new generation of equipment intended for non-destructive monitoring and estimating of the condition of the railroad basis and the foundations of artificial structures. The appropriate software of such vehicles based on the developed methods of data processing can be developed. The use of such equipment allows to operatively analyzing the state of individual areas of the railroad to decide on the need of repairing or replacing the railroad base or foundation of other elements of railroad infrastructure.Show more Item On Application of the Ground Effect for Highspeed Surface Vehicles(Magnolithe GmbH, Sankt Lorenzen, Austria, 2016) Kravets, Viktor V.; Kravets, Vladimir V.; Fedoriachenko, S. A.Show more EN: The paper describes a new approach for driving efficiency estimation. Authors proposed a new approach to assess the energy consumption for vehicle, which are able to rich high speed. Also, there is proposed a new concept of vehicle, which technology based on the ground effect. The concept compounds the automotive and aircraft’s solutions in order to reach high driving speed, driving efficiency and low energy consumption per cargo unit. As a result, the defined performance indicators for the transport systems opens up the possibility to formulate and solve optimization problems of structural and parametric synthesis of new types of transport, provide the analytical tools to make informed decisions in the process of design and construction, provide an overall controlled evolution of transport systems.Show more Item Practical Aspects of Improving the Operation Interaction of the Station and Sidings(Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, 2019) Nesterenko, Halyna I.; Muzykin, Mykhailo I.; Avramenko, Svetlana I.Show more ENG: Summary. This research deals with the analysis of the main parameters of the freight operation at the railway station. The modern scientific works on improving the interaction of the station and sidings were analysed. In order to improve the operation interaction of sidings with the Dnipro-Holovnyi railway station and to reduce the time of cars` inactivity, an improved technology of work was proposed. The variants of operation interaction of the station and sidings according to the existing and improved technology were compared. The improved technology of the station's operation makes it possible to significantly reduce the inactivity of local car and the average duration of the car's standing under one cargo operation. The track occupancy coefficient in the receiving-departure yard decreases as well.Show more Item Program Spatial Movement of High-Speed Vehicles(IOP Publishing, 2018) Kravets, Viktor V.; Sakhno, V.; Bas, Kostyantyn M.; Kravets, Vladimir V.Show more EN: Program spatial movement of a high-speed vehicle has been synthesized with thehelp of hodograph in terms of spiral paths. A mathematical model of a primary road in the form of a line over ruled bearing surface in the neighbourhood of the program trajectory has been developed. Vector equations of the elements of ruled surface and bearing surfaces oriented orthogonally to inertia forces have been set up. The inertia forces effecting a mass of a highspeed vehicle in the context of non-uniform motion along spiral program path has been demonstrated in a vector form.Show more Item Rational Distribution of Excess Regenerative Energy in Electric Transport Systems on the Basis of Fuzzy Logic Application(Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, 2017) Sablin, Oleg I.; Kuznetsov, Valeriy; Shynkarenko, Viktor I.; Ivanov, Alexander P.Show more ENG: To develop the fuzzy model of distribution of excess regenerative energy in traction and external power supply systems allowing to exercise effective operation of the power equipment. For effective distribution of excess regenerative energy in systems of electric transport, as well as for systems equipped with stationary stores of energy and inverting traction substations with regulators of output voltage it is necessary to solve a number of the problems with high degree of uncertainty demanding taking into account a set of random factors such as the modes of power lines and traction loadings. These factors have to be considered in operation for choosing the rational modes of energy stores, inverters and regulators of voltage on buses of substations to provide the rational conditions for energy regeneration on electric transport. The control system of energy storage devices, inverters and traction substation output voltage regulators, designed on the basis of fuzzy logic, can provide the necessary conditions for the regeneration on electric transport on sections with a shortage of traction power consumption and allows to optimize the distribution of excess braking energy of transport vehicles. It is achieved by determining the rational relationship between the components of the excess current of regeneration in real time, which can ensure a minimum of power losses of regenerative energy in traction and external power supply systems. The use of the developed approach is effective under the conditions of incomplete information received by measurement systems and on the basis of additional studies it can allow to minimize rated capacity of stores, inverters and traction substation output voltage regulators that could reduce the costs of modernization of existing sections and electrification of new electric transport systems.Show more Item Reliability of Systems. Part 1. Statics of Failures(LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany, 2016) Kravets, Viktor V.; Kravets, Vladimir V.; Burov, OlexiyShow more EN: We consider in-depth mechanical, geometric, analytic models of assessment the reliability of systems based on the use of the scheme of cases, Euler-Venn diagrams, generating functions, state diagrams. The methods of qualitative and quantitative assessment of the reliability on the established time interval, based on structural reliability, the importance of a structural element, the sensitivity of the reliability of the system taking into account the duplication of most significant and unreliable elements. Common approaches are illustrated by solving problems of the analysis and synthesis of reliable systems. This book is recommended for engineers, teachers and students of high educational institutions, who in their practice pose and solve problems of reliability of technical systems. The book contains a number of new materials developed by the authors in the last years that have not been published before.Show more Item Reliability of Systems. Part 2. Dynamics of Failures(LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany, 2016) Kravets, Viktor V.; Kravets, Vladimir V.; Burov, OlexiyShow more EN: The “Reliability of Systems. Dynamics of failures” covers the basic provisions of systems reliability assessment in dynamic run-time. A symmetrical structure discrete Markov chains are being considered for modeling random processes, such as failures and recoveries in technical and biological systems. The criterion of stability of random Markov process was established. An algorithm for determining the marginal probabilities of system states was developed. A method for evaluating the economic efficiency of the simulated discrete Markov chains was proposed. The matrix of transition prices was introduced, the appropriate mathematical conversions price expectations and the expectation of price transition system throughout possible states. The method is illustrated on the biological system and the Smart house system. This book is recommended for engineers, teachers and students of high education institutions, who in their practice pose and solve problems of reliability of systems. The book contains a number of new materials developed be the authors in the last years that have not been published before in full.Show more