Підвищення ресурсу колісних пар вантажних вагонів шляхом вдосконалення профілів коліс (дисертація)

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Date
2021
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ПП Видавництво «Нова ідеологія», м. Дніпро
Abstract
UKR: Дисертацію присвячено вирішенню питання підвищення ресурсу колісних пар вантажних вагонів за рахунок поліпшення процесів взаємодії зколією, що досягається шляхом вдосконалення форми профілів ободів коліс. Проведено аналіз впливу форми профілю коліс вантажних вагонів на показники їх взаємодії з колією та виконано дослідження ефективності застосування зносостійких профілів коліс. Показано, що додатковим шляхом збільшення терміну служби вагонних коліс, окрім зниження їх природного зносу, є збільшення можливого числа їх переточувань. Застосування зносостійкого профілю ІТМ-73-01 при обточуваннях коліс, як за зносом гребенів, так і за поверхневими дефектами дозволяє знімати менший шар металу, що істотно збільшує ресурс колеса. Виконано розробку зносостійких профілів коліс для вантажних вагонів перспективних конструкцій, у тому числі з підвищеним осьовим навантаженням. Показано, що використання запропонованих зносостійких профілів обода коліс для перспективних одиниць вантажного рухомого складу дозволить при забезпеченні високих динамічних якостей екіпажів помітно поліпшити процеси взаємодії контактної пари «колесо – рейка» та значно знизити гребеневий знос коліс.
ENG: The dissertation is devoted to the problem of freight cars wheelsets resource increase by the improvement of interaction with a track which is reached by perfection of wheel rim profiles. Development of wear-resistant wheel profiles for freight cars of perspective design including ones with the increased axial loading is done. Rational variants of wheels regrinding to wear-resistant profiles to increase wheelsets resource by the technological wear minimization are offered. The first section analyzes the main problems of interaction between rolling stock and railway track typical for domestic railway network. The main causes of intensive wheel ridges wear are shown and the main ways to solve this problem are considered. The advanced world experience in optimizing the shape of wheel profiles is analyzed. It is shown that further improvement of the shape of the freight cars wheel profile can solve a number of problems associated with improving the interaction of freight cars and track. At the same time, the introduction of new wearresistant wheel profiles on the railway network of Ukraine does not require significant costs compared to the improvement of the rolling stock and can give a significant technical and economic effect. In the second section the research on influence of freight car bogies technical conditions on their dynamic characteristics and processes of interaction with a track is executed. A spatial mathematical model of the interaction of the car and the arbitrary shaped track is developed, which allows to take into account the change of car technical condition parameters in operation for standard and prospective cars, as well as the possibility of single-point, two-point and conformal contact phases. The motion of cars with standard 18-100 type bogies, as well as with the same bogies equipped with complex modernization elements is considered. Standard dynamic parameters of the car, indicators of wear intensity and interaction between the wheel and the rail were studied. The dependencies of the studied indicators on the motion speed are received in accordance with the simulation results. The analysis of the obtained results is performed and it is established that the wheelset wear has the greatest influence on the dynamic characteristics of the "car-track" system. It is shown that the use of 18-100 type bogies complex modernization allows not only to reduce its elements and components wear, but also to reduce the negative impact of these wear on the car dynamic qualities. The third section analyzes the influence of the shape of the freight car wheel profiles on their interaction with the track. The analysis of contact wheel/rail interaction for different profiles of rim rolling surfaces at their different mutual displacements is performed. Possible types of contact are analyzed and ways of wheel profiles optimization are chosen. The conducted operational researches of freight cars with different bogie designs and initial wheel profiles testify that the use of the wear-resistant ITM-73 profile allowed to reduce wheel wear intensity up to more than 2 – 2.5 times in comparison with a standard profile, and ITM-73-01 profile use gives the wear reduction up to more than four times. The analysis of technological wear influence on a wheelset resource is carried out, the basic factors influencing its value are established. The dependences of the wheelset technological wear on the geometric parameters of the worn wheel profiles at their turning with different profiles are constructed. The comparative estimation of wheels regrinding variants for wear-resistant profiles from the position of wheelset resource increase and development of wheel regrinding rational variants in dependence on their malfunction types and an operation stage is done. It is shown that an additional way to increase the service life of car wheels together with the reducing their natural wear is to increase the possible number of regrindings. Application of the ITM-73-01 profile at wheels turning both on ridges wear and surface defects allows to remove a smaller layer of metal that essentially increases a resource of a wheel. As a result of the conducted researches it is received that at use of wearproof profiles of ITM-73 and ITM-73-01 types the intensity of wheels natural wear decreases considerably, and at their turning on the ITM-73-01 profile the technological wear also decreases considerably. The fourth section is related to solving the problem of updating the domestic railways freight fleet in order to improve vehicles dynamic qualities, increase running gear life, reduce rolling stock and track wear. This section presents the results of research to improve the existing wear-resistant profiles shape and assess their use impact in different design bogies for freight cars of the new generation on their dynamic qualities and interaction with the track. The new ITM-73-02 wheel profile with conformal contact for the rails P65 type has been developed. The impact of the new wear-resistant profile use in the 18-7020 type bogies on the vehicle dynamic characteristics and its interaction with the track is evaluated. According to the results of the study, it is shown that the use of the ITM-73-02 wheel profile according to forecast simulations meet the requirements on wheel wear intensity for prospective freight cars. For new bogies of 18-9817 model (with increased axle load up to 25 tons) the wheel profile ITM-73-03 is proposed, the use of which will significantly improve the process of interaction between the vehicle and the track and significantly reduce ridge wear. The influence of ITM-73-03 wheel profile application on the haracteristics of wheel/rail interaction and dynamic qualities of a freight car with a normal axle load of 23.5 tons was evaluated. It is shown that the use of the new ITM-73-03 profile for turning the freight cars wheels of the new generation 18-7020 bogie model (with an axial load of 23.5 tons) is quite acceptable.
Description
Н. Безрукавий: ORCID 0000-0002-3197-3505
Захист – 27 травня 2021 р., Дніпровський національний університет залізничного транспорту імені академіка В. Лазаряна
Keywords
вантажні вагони, зносостійкі профілі коліс, ресурс колісних пар, знос гребенів коліс, технологічний знос колісних пар, грузовые вагоны, износостойкие профили колес, ресурс колесных пар, износ гребней колес, технологический износ колесных пар, freight cars, wear-resistant wheel profiles, resource of wheelset, wear of wheel ridges, technological wear of wheelsets, ІТМ НАНУ і ДКАУ
Citation
Безрукавий Н. В. Підвищення ресурсу колісних пар вантажних вагонів шляхом вдосконалення профілів коліс : дис. ... канд. техн. наук: 05.22.07. Дніпро, 2021. 183 с.