Духовний спротив нацизму в Україні (1939–1944 рр.): історіографія проблеми

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Date
2017
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Національний музей історії України у Другій світовій війні. Меморіальний комплекс, Київ
Abstract
UKR: У статті здійснено спробу розкрити сутність та особливості розвитку історіографічного осмислення духовного спротиву нацистським окупантам на території України. Розкрито погляди радянських і сучасних українських науковців на різні аспекти досліджуваної проблеми. Окрему увагу приділено історіографії таких складників духовного спротиву, як антинацистський фольклор, протистояння Голокосту та релігійний спротив. Констатовано активізацію досліджень з цієї тематики в останні роки. Вказано на пріоритетні напрями подальших наукових пошуків.
RUS: В статье предпринята попытка раскрыть сущность и особенности развития историографического осмысления духовного сопротивления нацистским оккупантам на территории Украины. Раскрыты взгляды советских и современных украинских ученых на различные аспекты исследуемой проблемы. Особое внимание уделено историографии таких составляющих духовного сопротивления, как антинацистский фольклор, противостояние Холокоста и религиозное сопротивление. Констатировано активизацию исследований по этой тематике в последние годы. Указано на приоритетные направления дальнейших научных поисков.
ENG: The article attempts to reveal the essence and peculiarities of the development of the historiographical interpretation of spiritual resistance to the Nazi occupiers on the territory of Ukraine. It is found out that the historians of the USSR began the research on the history of spiritual resistance in Ukraine, whose works were expressively ideological in color. In their understanding, an unshakable faith in the triumph of communism, a deep understanding of the interests of the socialist motherland, a passionate desire to sacrifice oneself for victory were those sources of power, engendered massive heroism, which was very characteristic of the spiritual appearance of the Soviet people, including in the occupied territory. The real picture was less pathetic and more complex. All this ambiguity began to explore modern historians. They identified the spiritual factor as one of the decisive factors in the Second World War. The majority of the population could not fight the invaders with weapons in their hands, but took an active part in spiritual resistance, which manifested itself in opposing the intervention of the invaders in the church life; Opposition to the intent to create a spiritless and misanthropic atmosphere in society; The confrontation of the genocide of Jews and Gypsies; Creating an atmosphere of moral intolerance towards the occupation regime; Support the underground and partisans. In creating a condemnatory atmosphere for the occupiers, folk art and anti-Nazi folklore became very effective weapons. The discouragement of the Germans in their leadership, the recognition of the hopelessness of the continuation of the war, the growing number of losses and defeats, the hostility of the population led to numerous cases of moral decay, negligent performance of duties, desertion, suicide, arms sales, refusal to comply with orders. This is precisely the moral and psychological significance of the Resistance movement. Ukrainian historians have established that the widespread motivation for spiritual resistance was religious faith and religious moral values. This prompted many people to morally condemn and not comply with the orders of the Hitler authorities, save the Jews, engage in pastoral and chaplainism in guerrilla and insurgent detachments, and resist interference in church affairs. The mass character of such resistance is evidenced by the fact that Ukraine ranks fourth in the number of «righteous people» among the countries of Europe. Considerable attention was paid by domestic specialists to the study of biographies of active participants in spiritual resistance: Emelian Kovcha, Andrey and Klimentiya Sheptytsky. In general, it was ascertained that in recent years the coverage of various methods of spiritual resistance by the Ukrainian Nazi occupational regime has significantly intensified. This direction has become one of the most promising in the study of the history of the anti-Nazi Resistance movement in Ukraine. The opposition of the people of Ukraine to the genocide of the Jewish people is highlighted most thoroughly, including in several monographs. At the same time, there is a need to create a comprehensive synthetic work on the history of spiritual resistance, since most of the publications on this issue have a descriptive and fragmentary character.
Description
М. Слободянюк: ORCID 0000-0003-2218-0818
Keywords
історіографія, духовність, духовний спротив, рух Опору, окупація, праведники світу, историография, духовность, духовное cопротивление, движение Сопротивления, оккупация, праведники мира, historiography, spirituality, spiritual resistance, Resistance movement, occupation, righteous people of the world, КУГПІС
Citation
Слободянюк, М. А. Духовний спротив нацизму в Україні (1939-1944 рр.): історіографія проблеми / М. А. Слободянюк // Військово-історичний меридіан. – 2017. – № 2. – С. 16–26.